To use data is to analyze the data you collected. The type of data analysis will depend on the research question(s) asked and the kind of research done: quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods.
According to Peter Trochim, author of the online textbook, Research Methods Knowledge Base, in reference to quantitative research,
". . .most social research the data analysis involves three major steps, done in roughly this order:
In qualitative research the steps are similar but when and how they occur is often more complicated. The Pell Institute's Evaluation Toolkit says this:
"Qualitative data analysis involves the identification, examination, and interpretation of patterns and themes in textual data and determines how these patterns and themes help answer the research questions at hand."