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APUS Faculty Publications
Browse the collection of APUS Faculty Publications in the menu at left below.
Faculty Publications by School
Featured publications by APUS Librarians.
Book Review: The Accidental Data Scientist. Affelt, Amy. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2015, 222pp., #39.50, ISBN 978-1-57387-511-0.
Aida Marissa Smith
Abstract: A review of Amy Affelt's The Accidental Data Scientist.
This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in the Winter 2015 issue (volume 9, issue 4) of The Journal of Web Librarianship, copyright Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/ at the article DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19322909.2015.1086241.
Book Review: Location-Aware Services and QR Codes for Libraries. The Tech Set #13. Murphy, Joe. ALA TechSource: Chicago, IL. 2012, 115pp., $59.95 ISBN: 978-155570-784-2.
Aida Marissa Smith
Abstract: A review of Joe Murphy's Location-Aware Services and QR Codes for Libraries.
This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in the Fall 2015 issue (volume 9, issue 3) of The Journal of Web Librarianship, copyright Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/.
Public Health Interventions for Asthma: An Umbrella Review, 1990–2010
Magdala P. Labre, Elizabeth J. Herman, Gema G. Dumitru, Kristine A. Valenzuela, and Christy L. Cechman
Context: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease increasingly prevalent in the U.S., particularly among children and certain minority groups. This umbrella review sought to assess and summarize existing systematic reviews of asthma-related interventions that might be carried out or supported by state or community asthma control programs, and to identify gaps in knowledge.
Evidence acquisition: Eleven databases were searched through September 2010, using terms related to four concepts: “asthma,” “review,” “intervention,” and “NOT medication.” Reviews of the effectiveness of medications, medical procedures, complementary and alternative medicine, psychological interventions, family therapy, and of nutrients or nutritional supplements were excluded. Two coders screened each record and extracted data from the included reviews.
Evidence synthesis: Of 42 included reviews, 19 assessed the effectiveness of education and/or self-management, 9 the reduction of indoor triggers, 9 interventions to improve the provision of health care, and 5 examined other interventions. Several reviews found consistent evidence of effectiveness for self-management education, and one review determined that comprehensive home-based interventions including the reduction of multiple indoor asthma triggers are effective for children. Other reviews found limited or insufficient evidence due to study limitations.
Conclusions: State or community asthma control programs should prioritize: 1) implementing interventions for which this review found evidence of effectiveness; and 2) evaluating promising interventions that have not yet been adequately assessed. Future research would be improved by standardizing definitions and measures across studies and adhering to quality guidelines when conducting systematic reviews. Well-designed research on health care system and policy interventions related to asthma is needed.
This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in the April 2012 issue (volume 42, issue 4) of American Journal of Preventive Medicine, available online at: http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797%2812%2900023-2/ at the article DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.016.
School of Arts and Humanities
Featured publications by faculty in APUS's School of Arts and Humanities.
An Evaluation of Early College High School Models and Traditional High Schools on Early College Readiness in English
Marisa M. Chapa, Lori Kupczynski, Marie-Anne Mundy, and Angela M. Gibson
Abstract: In Texas, the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) has doubled from the 2013-2014 school year. This reform effort is an attempt to ensure college and career readiness for high school students. Individuals must be deemed college ready to participate in dual-enrollment. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between Early College High School (ECHS) students, ECHS students within a traditional high school, and traditional high school students in South Texas on college readiness as measured by the grade nine and 10 English EOC tests. The research reviewed scores of EOC English I and EOC English II courses for ninth and tenth grade students. English EOC test scores from three different high school models were analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANOVA) with repeated measures statistical analysis. Results showed the ECHS stand-alone model had a significant difference in English EOC test scores among the three different high school models on college readiness.
Published in v. 3, no. 1 (2016) of Journal of Education & Social Policy.
“It Was a Spearhead of Change”: The Fish-Ins of the Pacific Northwest and the Boldt Decision
Abstract: On January 11, 1974, Judge George Boldt handed down a decision on Pacific Northwest Indian treaty fishing rights that would become one of the most dramatic, highly contested, and significant court rulings in Pacific Northwest history. The Boldt decision in US v. Washington was the outcome of decades of struggles on the part of Puget Sound Indian nations to protect and preserve their right to fish. As three years of testimony and investigation unfolded in Judge Boldt’s court room, the significance of fish, both economically and culturally to Northwest Indian people’s identity was revealed. There were numerous diverse people, from different tribes and different states, who played a role in seeing the case brought to court and to completion. But they all shared the same goal: to win federal recognition and protection of treaty rights and to use that acknowledgement to reinvigorate fishing as a key element of their economies and identities.
Published in v. 22, no. 1 & 2 (2013) of Native Studies Review.
A Study of Faculty Technology Use in Online Learning: Is There a Disconnect?
Lori Kupczynski, Mary E. Green, and Angela M. Gibson
Abstract: Exponential growth at online institutions necessitates inquiry into interactions between faculty and students meant to foster academic success. Faculty at a Hispanic Serving Institution were surveyed investigating the use of personal technologies and course management tools in online, blended, and web-enhanced environments, and implications for engagement in the classroom. Results indicate that faculty has limited adoption of technology in their personal life. In addition, the challenge to meet the increasing demands of integrating lessons with technology while still maintaining traditional academic goals is discussed. Further, technologies adopted by faculty for instruction reflect traditional teacher-directed practice. Teacher attitudes toward online learning predict usage of course management tools. Enabling student engagement, thus resulting in positive student outcomes, requires that we address the disconnect between faculty personal use and class use of technology. Exploration into how the E-Learning shift can be conceptualized as a flexible, self-organized, and collaborative process as well as limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.
Published in vol. 4, no. 1 of the Journal of Technology Integration in the Classroom.
Comprehensive Assessment of Student Retention in Online Learning Environments
Wallace E. Boston, Phil Ice, and Angela M. Gibson
Abstract: As the growth of online programs continues to rapidly accelerate, concern over the retention of the online learner is increasing. Educational administrators at institutions offering online courses, those fully online or brick and mortars, are eager to promote student achievement. Retention is critically important, not just for student success, but also for the success of these institutions of higher education. Models for understanding student persistence in the face-to-face environment are well established; however, many of the variables in these constructs are not present in the online environment or they manifest in significantly different ways. With attrition rates higher than in face-to-face programs, the development of models to explain online retention is considered imperative. This study moves in that direction by exploring the relationship between student demographics and interactions, and retention at a large online university. Analysis of data, which included an n of 20,569, provides an illustration of the importance of transfer credit and the consistency of activity in predicting continued enrollment.
Article published in v. IV, no. I (Spring 2011) of the Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration.
An Exploration of Differences Between Community of Indicators in Low and High Disenrollment Online Courses
Phil Ice, Angela M. Gibson, Wallace E. Boston, and Dave Becher
Abstract: Though online enrollments continue to accelerate at a rapid pace, there is significant concern over student retention. With drop rates significantly higher than in face-to-face classes it is imperative that online providers develop an understanding of factors that lead students to disenroll. This study utilizes a data mining approach to examine course-level disenrollment through the lens of student satisfaction with the projection of Teaching, Social and Cognitive Presence. In comparing the highest and lowest disenrollment quartiles of all courses at American Public University the value of effective Instructional Design and Organization, and initiation of the Triggering Event phase of Cognitive Presence were found to be significant predictors of student satisfaction in the lowest disenrollment quartile. For the highest disenrollment quartile, the lack of follow-through vis-à-vis Facilitation of Discourse and Cognitive Integration were found to be negative predictors of student satisfaction.
This article originally published in v. 15, iss. 2 of the Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks.
The Impact of Frequency on Achievement in Online Courses: A Study From a South Texas University
Lori Kupczynski, Angela M. Gibson, Phil Ice, Jennifer Richardson, and Linda Challoo
Abstract: For over a decade, the learning management system (LMS) has been the primary method of delivering online learning. However, research related instructional design and pedagogical practices within this environment is still in its infancy as compared to face-to-face learning. While several frameworks for understanding pedagogical strategies and activity optimization exist, they do not address granular level issues such as optimal student interaction patterns. This study addresses this issue by exploring a case study of over 1600 online learners at a university in south Texas. Researchers looked at student demographics and activity patterns as they relate to cognitive outcomes.
Published in v. 10, no. 3 of JIOL: Journal of Interactive Online Learning.
Student Success in Top 20 Courses of an Online Institution: Demographic Differences in a Multi-Semester Cross-Curricular Study
Angela M. Gibson, Lori Kupczynski, and Phil Ice
Abstract: Student success is vitally important. Without academic achievement student self-efficacy is lost, persistence is blocked, and matriculation is unachievable. Exponential growth at online institutions necessitates the inquiry into factors that play a role in student success. In this study, approximately 15,000 cases from the Top 20 enrolled courses of undergraduate students at a large national fully online university were examined to determine if course Grade Point Average was related with student characteristics, e.g., student gender, ethnicity, age, and military status. Multiple semester sessions were analyzed across multiple curricular areas. Results and recommendations are discussed.
Originally published in the i-manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, 7(2), Jul-Sep 2010, Print ISSN 0973-0559, E-ISSN 2230-7125, pp.18-27.
An Exploration of the Relationship Between Indicators of the Community of Inquiry Framework and Retention in Online Programs
Wallace E. Boston, Phil Ice, Sebastián R. Diaz, Jennifer Richardson, Angela M. Gibson, and Karen Swan
Abstract: As the growth of online programs continues to rapidly accelerate, concern over retention is increasing. Models for understanding student persistence in the face-to-face environment are well established, however, the many of the variables in these constructs are not present in the online environment or they manifest in significantly different ways. With attrition rates significantly higher than in face-to-face programs, the development of models to explain online retention is considered imperative. This study moves in that direction by exploring the relationship between indicators of the Community of Inquiry Framework and student persistence. Analysis of over 28,000 student records and survey data demonstrates a significant amount of variance in re-enrollment can be accounted for by indicators of Social Presence.
This article originally published in v. 13, iss. 3 of the Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks.
Teachers Behaving Unprofessionally: Stories from Students
Angela M. Gibson, Jinhao Wang, and John R. Slate
Abstract: In this study, the researchers analyzed stories told by students (n = 80) of their poorest K-12 teachers who behaved in an unprofessional manner. Nine dominant themes were identified: poor teaching; learning not occurring; poor communication with students; uncaring; no explanations; being overly emotional; high school teachers; off-task behaviors; and poor classroom management. Illustrative student stories were provided. Implications of these stories were discussed.
Published in v. 4, no. 1 of the International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation. Also available through the Connexions Content Commons. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/8aa54448-07c5-4866-84dd-61af37276ff1@4.
Thematic Differences in Mission Statements Between Four-Year Public Institutions and Two-Year Colleges in Texas
Jinhao Wang, Angela M. Gibson, Lelia Salinas, Fred Solis, and John R. Slate
Abstract: The mission statements of 34 four-year and of 68 two-year colleges in the State of Texas were examined for themes to determine the extent to which their themes were similar or dissimilar in nature. Although previous researchers have attempted to analyze and demonstrate that these mission statements often have reoccurring themes, only limited information is available about the specific thematic differences in the mission statements of two-year community colleges and four-year institutions. In the qualitative analysis, 15 themes were determined to be present among the sample: Leadership, Citizenship, Cultural Diversity, Life-Long Learning, Excellence in Teaching and Research, Creativity, Critical Thinking, Academic Achievement, Collaboration and Partnership, Vocational and Technical Skills, Access to Higher Education, Academic Readiness and Skill Development, Student Services, Community Focus, and Technology. Quantitative analyses yielded statistically significant differences in the themes of Leadership, Citizenship, Cultural Diversity, Excellence in Teaching and Research, Creativity, Academic Achievement, Vocational and Technical Skills, Academic Readiness Skill Development, with more four-year institutions emphasizing Leadership, Citizenship, Cultural Diversity, Excellence in Teaching and Research, Creativity, and Academic Achievement, and with more two-year colleges emphasizing Vocational and Technical Skills and Academic Readiness Skill Development. The two levels of Texas higher education institutions distinguished themselves by fulfilling their traditional roles, with four-year institutions adhering to their excellence in teaching and research, and providing leadership, and with two-year colleges adhering to their role of open-access and vocational training. On the other hand, four-year institutions also expanded their role to shoulder responsibilities typically fulfilled by the two-year colleges.
This article published in v. 11 of IEJLL: International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning.
School of Business
Featured publications by faculty in APUS's School of Business.
Forum Quality or Quantity: What is Driving Student Engagement Online?
Cassandra S. Shaw and Kathleen C. Irwin
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between forum quality and student engagement. It was hypothesized when the forum prompt was of expected quality it would be a driver of student engagement and examined the length of the forum prompt in relation to student engagement. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative--a regression was performed for the regressor variables, collectively, with each dependent variable. In addition, a standard regression was performed for quality of forum prompt with each dependent variable, separately. Data was collected over an eight-month period from May through December of 2015 from the following programs within the School of Business in an online university: accounting, business administration, government contracting, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, hospitality, human resource management, management, marketing, retail management, reverse logistics management, and transportation and logistics management. We examined the theory established by Salmon regarding the 5-stage model for forum development: (1) access and motivation, (2) online socialization, (3) information exchange, (4) knowledge construction, and (5) development. It was determined stages one and two are critical for student engagement as the more in depth the prompt the less likely students were to engage.
Originally published in the Online Journal of Distance Learning Education, v. 20, iss. 3, Fall 2017.
New Normal Initiatives Prompts U.S. Business Schools to Enhance Curricula
Orlando Rivero and Otto F. von Feigenblatt
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to seek an understanding as to how organizations are able to evolve despite the challenges attributable to the increase of competition and the reduction of resources. Studies have suggested that the lack of leadership is to blame for promoting misguided organizational change. Other experts suggest that corporate leaders who lack emotional intelligence (EI) are equally to blame for organizational failure. The “New Normal” continues to be a focal point of discussion among corporate leaders. Additionally, not only should leaders be critical thinkers and lead by example, they should have an understanding of internal and external factors associated with the overall organizational setting. Moreover, universities/colleges throughout America continue to expand their curricula to better prepare future corporate leaders. Additionally, the inclusion of EI initiatives within university/college undergraduate and graduate curricula is a high priority for most university administrators to meet U.S. job market requirements.
Published in v. 7, no. 3 of the Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences.
Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention
Cassandra S. Shaw, Xiaodong Wu, Kathleen C. Irwin, and L.A. Chad Patrizi
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty personality types on student retention; and 2) using the 16PF® Questionnaire survey study of faculty personality. Further, this study identified non-personality related factors that had a significant impact on student retention; these factors acted as controlled factors in the regression study on faculty personality. Using the 16Pf® Questionnaire, 180 item responses were aggregated into 19 raw scores and 43 sten scores; each represented one of the personality factors described by the 16Pf® Questionnaire. In addition, linear regression models were used to examine the impact of faculty personality types on student retention data. The ultimate findings indicated that student retention largely depended on student GPA. Students who possessed a high GPA tended to be more successful at completing their courses in the short and long term. Students who possessed a high GPA was a dominate factor; however, faculty personality factors also had a significant contribution to students completing their degree program.
Originally published in the Online Journal of Distance Learning Education, v. 19, iss. 1, Spring 2016.
It’s Hard to Say—A Proposal for Evaluating Administrative Processes
John Richard Horne
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to propose a practical method with which to evaluate the performance of an administrative process that lacks specific quantitative parameters with which to examine. It provides a framework by which it adapts a widely used process improvement technique, the 6-S process, to a more advanced realm. By building on an existing process, learning time will be minimized and use of this tool in an administrative process will also act to reinforce the use of the 6-S tool in more physical settings, such as industrial or the like.
This is an accepted manuscript of an article published in the American Journal of Management, volume 15, issue 1.
A Review of Emotional Intelligence Initiatives from a Corporate Sustainability Perspective
Abstract: For the last several years, United States firms have been fascinated with the study of emotional intelligence (EI). The rapid change agent to improve products and services has had an impact on the overall work environment. Studies have suggested that most organizational change initiatives are unsuccessful due to the lack of communication among management and subordinates. In most cases, organizations' goals and objectives are overbearing, which leads to managers promoting a false sense of urgency among subordinates. Other studies have suggested that emotionally intelligent leaders are far more successful as compared to those who are not. At the end, this study will establish a connection between EI and corporate sustainability for improved work productivity.
Published in the International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, v. 4, no. 6.
A Humanistic Approach to Streamline Organizational Change Initiatives
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to describe the importance of establishing organizational development initiatives during organizational change. The sense of urgency to promote change in the workplace has been a focal point for most organizations in an effort to remain competitive. Unfortunately, the humanistic approach has been exchanged for undeliverable expectations, which has led to dysfunctional organizations throughout America. Therefore, employees are most likely to resist organizational change due to the lack of understanding, or the promotion of undeliverable expectations. In an effort to address these issues, organizational development interventions are needed in order to streamline organizational change initiatives. A complete analysis and recommendations will be included to promote a positive work environment during organizational change initiatives.
Published in the Mustang Journal of Management & Marketing, v. 3.
A Review of Modern Journal Publication Initiatives and How It Has Affected Academia
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to review recent trends as they relate to modern journal publications. With that being said, open access journals have had an impact on the journal publication industry. Subsequently, open access journals have led to a decrease in book publications but an increase of journal publications in America among faculty members. The highly regarded Impact Factor (IF), measuring the average number of citations to recent articles published in journals, will also be discussed. Moreover, studies have suggested that the number of published articles will determine faculty salary increments, which will also be reviewed. In so doing, recommendations will be provided in order to have a better understanding of modern journal publication trends.
Published in International Journal of Social Science Research, v. 2.
Misguided Organizational Change Initiatives And How It Promotes A Destructive Work Environment
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review recent trends as they relate to organizational change and how these trends have affected the overall work environment. Over the years, United States corporations have successfully done well financially. However, due to downsizing initiatives and the outsourcing of products and services to other countries in order to stay competitive, United States firms have been forced to do more, but with less resources. Bullying in the workplace has been around for several years; however, employees are being pushed to do more for less with unrealistic work expectations. Workforce bullying has become an epidemic of mass portions, which has led to dysfunctional organizations and inappropriate behavior among employers/employees. At the end, recommendations will be made to promote positive work environments while contributing to organizational change initiatives.
Published in the International Journal of Management & Information Systems, v. 17, no. 3.
Marketing In Greece: The Reasons Of Its Underdevelopment
Orlando Rivero and John Theodore
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that marketing in Greece is underdeveloped because the nation does not have an adequate number of private corporations due to insufficient industrialization. Advanced marketing practices are the result of the corporate form of business. Industrialization in Greece was followed by a rapid shift to post-Fordism in the late 1980s which had a tremendous impact upon the lack of opportunity for merging small organizations into larger ones needed for the creation of the corporate form of business and the formation of new and larger organizations in the corporate form. The corporate form of business is large, provides in abundance, the factors of production, and has highly developed functional units—production, marketing, finance, and human resources. Clearly, the majority of Greek business organizations are small, thus disallowing for formation of an infrastructure that leads to the development of marketing through the effective and efficient use of all the factors of production.
This article published in vol. 12, no. 7 of the International Business & Economics Research Journal.
Global Information Systems Innovation: Healthcare Digital Records
Irikefe Urhuogo, Valerine Vann, and Harish C. Chandan
Abstract: Healthcare digital record (HDR) has become very common in the healthcare industry, and global information systems innovation has captured the attention of healthcare professionals. The current research objective is to discover how HDR innovation can assist healthcare professionals in developing HDR devices that suit their organization’s objectives, and a quantitative research approach is proposed to help explore the objectives. This research discusses how management can introduce healthcare innovation in the healthcare industry and mentions system innovation, characteristics of innovators, how employees can improve innovative projects, and how the system development life cycle can be used to guide HDR innovation.
Published in the Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, v. 4, no. 3.
US Unemployment Among Younger Adults And Recommendations To Improve Employment Sustainability
Abstract: The United States unemployment rate continues to be a focal point of discussion. Although in July 2012, the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics reported an 8.3% unemployment rate in America, this figure only reflects workers between the ages of 16 and older. With this being said, there is a segment of the population unrepresented within the totality of the United States unemployment rate reported. Younger workers between the ages of 16 to 24 years of age have sustained a much higher unemployment rate as compared to older workers. Unfortunately, 93% of these younger workers do not have a high school diploma and the majority of these workers were supporting families. The purpose of this article is to examine several components of the unemployment rate as it relates to younger workers between the ages of 16 to 24 years of age. Recommendations will be offered in an effort to improve employment sustainability among younger workers, which has been an issue that has been ignored for several years until recently.
Published in Journal of Business & Economics Research, v. 11, no. 1.
Information Systems Maintenance: The Application of Total Quality Management Construct
Irikefe Urhuogo, Valerine Vann, and Harish C. Chandan
Abstract: This research discusses information systems (IS) maintainability in terms of control, reliability, user participation, and training (CRUT). Dependable IS have the potential to protect organizational information as well as data in cases of emergencies. This paper reviews the application of the total quality management (TQM) construct to suit organizational IS. The TQM elements that are mentioned in this research are integrity, training, employee involvement, and customer focus (ITEC). The research objective is to discover how organizational management may better preserve the quality of the IS they adopt and how their participation in IS development could impact quality maintenance. A qualitative research approach is proposed to explore the CRUT model in terms of IS maintenance.
Published in the Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, v. 3, no. 3.
A Comparison of the Provisions between NAFTA and GATT
George J. Gannage Jr.
Abstract: As a result of rapid growth in exports and imports between countries throughout the world, countries sought more economical ways to facilitate trade. In an attempt to increase greater volume of international trade among most favored nation countries both the GATT and NAFTA agreements were formed. This paper will research the foundations of both GATT and NAFTA from conception to their current day utilization. Such topics as harmonization, tariffs and non-tariffs barriers, and protection of infant industries and general economics of these agreements will be highlighted and discussed. Also, an analysis of some legal issues and challenges that have recently occurred between both customs agreements will be researched.
Published in the International Journal of Business and Social Science, v. 3, no. 2.
A Study of Female Entrepeneurs Seeking Capital for Start-Up Business
Valerie D. Vann
Abstract: In the United States (U.S.) small businesses create job opportunities for millions of citizens and non-citizens authorized to work in the U.S. In recent decades, female-owned businesses failed within the first few years of start-up because of a lack of capital (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006). A quantitative research methodology was employed to determine a correlation of human, financial and social capital (independent variables) and capital resources (networks to access capital for business, e.g. professional relationships, mentoring/support groups, social networks, events, organizations, institutions, venture capitalist, et al.) (dependent variable) needed for starting a business. The study focused on current and aspiring ethnic (African American & Hispanic) female entrepreneurs seeking capital for start-up businesses; and to determine general self-efficacy. The results of the study revealed a statistical significant relationship exists between human, financial, and social capital and capital resources.
School of Education
Featured publications by faculty in APUS's School of Education.
Capturing the Essence and the Coalescence of Presence within the Community of Inquiry of an Online Graduate Course in Multicultural Diversity
Katherina C. Muller
Abstract: In this study, students who are preservice and inservice teachers participated in an asynchronous online graduate course in multicultural diversity during the fall of 2008. Their emails, threaded discussions, cross-cultural community interactions, and final reflections were examined and analyzed revealing their perceptions of their experiences in this course. The main relevance of the study was to provide insight and new understandings of learning online. The Community of Inquiry provided the framework within which these insights and understandings were drawn. Four archived course components were analyzed: emails, threaded discussions, cross-cultural community interactions, and final reflections. A coalescence of presence was found throughout. Themes of transformation emerged from the threaded discussions, cross-cultural community interactions, and final reflections. Although most of the participant perceptions of learning online were positive, some downsides were voiced, namely, difficulties with technology and preference for face to face (f2f) instruction. The study addressed the overarching question: How do teachers’ perceptions of and experiences in an online graduate course on diversity education evolve over time? Themes which emerged from the email section included technology issues, assignment and grade expectations, and life challenges. Threaded discussions, cross-cultural community interactions, and final reflections revealed themes of transformation. Early in the course, participant posts and responses were peppered with statements of disbelief, e.g. “I didn’t know…” and “I can’t believe…” By the end of the course, the statements had evolved to “I now know…” and “I now believe…” as the participants examined and analyzed their core beliefs.
Moral Development: The Experiential Perspective
Norman S. Rose
Abstract: Moral or character education has settled mainly into two distinct and opposing 'camps' of thought and application: the conventional-behaviourist and the developmental-cognitive. The author introduces a third perspective based on a perceptual-experiential model. Here, young people construct their moral reality through a curriculum of stage-appropriate sensory challenges. This new perspective finds support in a variety of theoretical and clinical works. Implications and applications of this model are discussed.
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in the Journal of Moral Education, v. 21, issue 1 (Winter 1992), available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305724920210103.
Natural Design and Human Development: Waskom's Paradigm of Wholeness
Norman S. Rose
Abstract: This article describes a paradigm that relates natural design and human development. Part One outlines the foundations of the paradigm, its premises and its grounding in other sciences. Part Two outlines key developmental and pedagogical considerations that follow from the premises. Part Three offers conclusions and recommendations for further study. The author is indebted to the late John Waskom, Ph.D., for his inspiration in initiating this entire consideration. The ideas presented here originated with him, although none were published previously by him. His work in the fields of science, education, and psychology was visionary in its scope, yet solid in its application, as his pupils, colleagues, and family would attest.
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in The Educational Forum in v. 55, iss. 3 (Spring 1991), available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131729109335650.